According to neoclassical price-determination theory and game theory, the independence of suppliers forces prices to their minimum, increasing efficiency and decreasing the price determining ability of each individual firm.
In this picture sometimes the competition authorities are viewing some moving parts and start the investigations.
Although at first glance things seem to be so, in absence of evidences, classical “smoking gun”, is difficult to conclude in this way and a methodical approach in terms of rule of reason can prove otherwise.
Even some facts apparently fall under per se illegality rule, our people have enough experience to demonstrate the opposite.
Vassily Kandinsky, a lawyer turned in an artist